THIS BOOK lur NOT BE HIOTOCOPIEI,

J

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS

OF THE

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OP LONDON

FOR THE YEAE

1881.

PRINTED FOE THE SOCIETY, AND SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER SQUARE.

LONDON: MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER,

PATERNOSTER ROW.

LIST

OF TKE

COUNCIL AND OFFICERS

OF THE

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.

1881.

COUNCIL. Professor W. H. Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., President.

Major-Gen. The Lord Abixger,

C.B. Major-Gex. Henry Clerk, E. A.,

r.R.s.

Charles Drtjmmond, Esq., Trea- surer.

Sir Joseph Fayrer, K.C.S.I., F.E.S.

John P. Gassiot, Esq.

F. DuCane Godman, Esq.

Lt.-Col. H. H. Godwin^-Attsten, F.E.S.

Col. J. A. Grant, C.B., F.E.S.

Arthur Grote, Esq., Vice-Pre- sident.

Dr. a. Gunther, F.E.S.

Dr. Edward Hamilton, Vice- President.

E. AV. H. Holdsworth, Esq.

EoBERT Hudson, Esq., F.E.S., Vice-President.

Professor Newton, F.E.S.

LiEUT.-CoL. Sir Charles Eus- sell, Bart., M.P.

OsBERT Salttn, Esq., F.E.S.

Philip Lutley Sclater, Esq., M.A.,Ph.D., F.E.S.,»Se«-etor!/.

Et. Honi George Sclater-Booth, M.P.

Joseph Teavers Smith, Esq.

The Lord Walsingham.

PEINCIPAL OFFICEES.

P. L. Sclater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.E.S., Secretary.

W. A. Forbes, Esq., B.A., Prosector.

Mr. a. D. Bartlett, Superintendent of the Gardens.

Mr. F. H. Waterhotjse, Librarian.

Mr. W. J. Williams, Chief ClerL:

LIST

OF THE

CONTRIBUTORS,

With References to the several Articles contributed by each.

Page Balfour, F. M.. M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

"O^

Oa the Evolution of the Placenta, and on the possibility of employing the characters of the Placenta in the Classifi- cation of the Mammalia 210

On the Development of the Skeleton of the Paired Fins of Elasmobranchii, considered in relation to its Bearings on the Nature of the Limbs of the Vertebrata. (Plates LVII. & LVIIL) 656

Bartlett, a. D., Superintendent of the Society's Gardens.

Remarks upon the Habits of the Darter (^Flatus anhinga) . 247

Bell, F. Jeffrey, M. A., F.Z.S., Professor of Comparative Anatomy in King's College, London.

Account of the Echinodermata collected during the Survey of H.M.S. 'Alert' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia. (Plates VIII. & IX.) 87

Observations on the Characters of the Echinoidea. IV. The Echinometridce ; their Affinities and Systematic Position 410

Description of a new Species of the Genus Mespilia .... 43

O /.

/. ^

9.

IV

Page

Contributions to tlie Systematic Arrangement of the Aste- roi'dea. I. The Species of the Genus Asterias. (Plates XLVII. &XLVIII.) > 492

Bennett, George J., C.M.Z.S.

Observations on the Habits of the Echidna hystrix of Australia "37

Blanford, W. T., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c.

On a Collection of Reptiles and Frogs chiefly from Sin- gapore. (Plates XX., XXI.) 215

Notes on the Lizards collected in Socotra by Prof. I. Bayley Balfour. (Plate XLII.) 464

On a Collection of Persian Reptiles recently added to the British Museum. (Plate LIX.) 671

Bock, Carl.

List of Land and Freshwater Shells collected in Sumatra and Borneo, \>'ith Descriptions of new Species. (Plate LV.) 628

Boulenger, G. a., Aide-Naturaliste at the Royal Museum of Belgium.

Description of a new Species of Enyalius in the Brussels Museum. (Plate XXVI.) 246

On the Lizards of the Genera Lacerta and Acanthodactylus. (Plates LXIIL, LXIV.) 739

Description of a new Species AnoUs from Yucatan. 921

Butler, Arthur Gardiner, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.. Assistant Keeper, Zoological Department, British Museum.

Account of the Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, and Hemiptera collected during the Survey of H.M.S. ' Alert ' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia 82

On the Lepidoptera collected in Socotra by Prof. I. Bayley Balfour. (Plate XVIII.) 175

V

Page On a Collection of Lepidoptera from Western India, Beloochistan, and Afghanistan G02

Butler, Arthur Gr., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., and Fenton, Montague.

On Butterflies from Japan, with which are incorporated Notes and Descriptions of new Species by Montague Fenton 84G

Cambridge, Rev. 0. Pickard, M.A., C.M.Z.S., Hon. Mem. New-Zealand Institute.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a Hymenopterous para- sitic Insect 259

On a new Spider of the Family Theraphosidse. (Plate LX.) 682

On some new Genera and Species of Araneidea. (Plate LXVI.) 765

Cocks, Alfred Heneage, F.Z.S.

Note on the Breeding of the Otter.. 249

Collett, Robert, C.M.Z.S.

On Halichcerus grypus, and its Breeding on the Fro Islands off Throndhjems-fjord in Norway 380

Crane, Agnes.

Notes on the Habits of the Manatees (Manatus australis) in Captivity in the Brighton Aquarium 456

Day, Francis, F.Z.S.

On the Range of Apogoii ellioti 650

Distant, W. L.

Additions to the Rhynchotal Fauna of the Ethiopian Region. (Plate XXXI.) 2/0

VI

Page DoBSON, G. E., M.A., M.B., F.L.S., &c.

Notes on the Anatomy of the Erinaceidce 389

On the Structure of the Pharynx, Larynx, and Hyoid Bones in the Epomophori ; with Remarks on its Relation to the Habits of these Animals 685

Notes on the Muscular Anatomy of Cercopithecus calli- trichus 812

Dresser, H. E., F.Z.S.

Exhibition of examples of Saxicola deserti and Picus pubescens the former shot in Clackmannanshire, the latter in France 453

Elwes, Henry J., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.

On the Butterflies of Amurland, North China, and Japan 856

Fenton, Montague, and Butler, Arthur G., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &-C.

On Butterflies from Japan, with which are incorporated Notes and Descriptions of New Species by Montague Fenton 846

Fletcher, J. J., M.A. (Syd.), B. Sc. (Lond.), and Lister, J. J., B.A., F.Z.S., St. John's College, Cambridge, Demonstrator of Comparative Anatomy in the University of Cambridge.

On the Condition of the Median Portion of the Vaginal Apparatus in the Macropodidae 976

Flower, William Henry, LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., President of the Society, Conservator of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, and Hunterian Professor.

On the Elephant Seal, Macrorhinus leoninus (Linn.) .... I45

Notes on the Habits of the Manatee , 453

Forbes, William Alexander, B.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. Prosector to the Society.

Vll

Page On some Points in the Anatomy of the Koala (Phascol- arctos cinereus) 1 80

Note on Mr. Bartlett's Communication on the Habits of the Darter 248

Contributions to the Anatomy of Passerine Birds. Part IV. On some Points in the Anatomy of the Genus Conopophaga, and its Systematic Position 435

Notice of a Memoir on the external form and on the anatomy of the Californian Sea-lion (^Otaria gillespii) 453

Notes on the Anatomy and Systematic Position of the Ja9anas {Parridee) 639

On the Petrel called Thalassidroma nereis by Gould, and its Affinities 735

On the Conformation of the Thoracic End of the Trachea in the " Ratite " Birds 778

Note on the Structure of the Palate in the Trogons {Tro- gojiidce) 836

Note on the Systematic Position of Eupetes macrocercus . 837

Observations on the Incubation of the Indian Python (Pijthon molurus), with special regard to the alleged Increase of Temperature during that process 960

Frenzel, Dr. A. of Freiberg, Saxony.

Letter from, addressed to the Secretary, concerning the breeding of some Parrots of the Genus Eclectus in captivity. 916

Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Col. H. H., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c.

On the Land Shells of the Island of Socotra collected by Prof. I. Bayley Balfour. Part I. Cyclostomacese. (Plares XXVII., XXVIII.) 251

On the Land Shells of the Island of Socotra collected by Professor I. Bayley Balfour. Part II. Hehcaceae. (Plates LXVIII., LXIX.) 801

YIU

Page

GtJNTHER, Albert, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Keeper of the Zoological Department, British Museum.

Account of the Reptiles, Batrachians, and Fishes collected during the Survey of H.M.S. 'Alert' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia. (Plates I., II.). . 18

Notes on the Species of Rhynchocyon and Petrodromus (Plate XIV.) 163

Descriptions of the Amphisbaenians and Ophidians col- lected by Prof. I. Bayley Balfour in the Island of Socotra. (Plates XL., XLI.) , 461

Exhibition of a specimen of a Mediterranean fish (Schedo- philus medusophagus) captured at Portrush, in Ireland .... 734

Hartlaub, Dr. G., F.M.Z.S.

On the Birds collected in Socotra and Southern Arabia by Dr. Emil Riebeck. (Plate LXXII.) 953

Hartlaub, Dr. G., F.M.Z.S., and Sclater, P. L., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., &c.

On the Birds collected in Socotra by Prof. I. Bayley Balfour. (Plates XV.-XVII.) 165

HOLDSWORTH, E. W. H., F.Z.S., &c.

Exhibition of an example of White's Thrush, killed near Ashburton, Devon 260

Jacob Y, Martin.

Descriptions of new Genera and Species of Phytophagous Coleoptera 439

Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, LL.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S.

On the MoUusca procured during the ' Lightning ' and •Porcupine 'Expeditions, 1868-70.— Part III. (Plate LXI.) 693

IX

Page On the Mollusca procured during the ' Lightning ' and 'Porcupine' Expeditions, 1868-70.— Part IV. (Plates LXX., LXXI.) 922

KiRBY, W. F., Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Museum.

On the Hymenoptera collected by Prof. J. Bayley Balfour in Socotra 649

Layard, E. L., C.M.G., F.Z.S., &c., H.B.M. Consul in New Caledonia.

Note on Cceliaxis layardi, Angas 839

Lister, J. J., B.A., F.Z.S., St. John's College, Cambridge, Demonstrator of Comparative Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Fletcher, J. J., M.A. (Syd.), B.Sc. (Loud.j

On the Condition of the Median Portion of the Vaginal Apparatus in the Macropodidse 976

Markham, Clements R., C.B., F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S., F.L.S.,

&c.

On the Whale-Fishery of the Basque Provinces of Spain . 969

Meyer, Dr. A. B., Director of the Royal Zoological Museum, Dresden, C.M.Z.S.

On a new Species of Edectus from the Timorlaut Islands. 9 1 7

MiERS, Edward J., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Museum.

Account of the Crustacea collected during the Survey of H.M.S. 'Alert' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia. (Plate VII.) 61

More, A. G.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the eggs of the Red- necked Phalarope and other specimens 409

X

Page

Moore, Frederic, F.Z.S.

Descriptions of new Genera and Species of Asiatic Nocturnal Lepidoptera. (Plates XXXVII., XXXVIII.) 326

Nation, Prof. W., of Lima, C.M.Z.S., and Sclater, P. L., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.

On the Birds of the Vicinity of Lima, Peru. By P. L. Sclater. With Notes on their Habits, by Prof. W. Nation.— Part V. (Plate XLVI.) 484

Newton, Alfred, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in the University of Cambridge.

Exhibition of (on behalf of Prof. Alphonse Milne- Edwards), and remarks upon, an egg of Caviama cristata . . 1

Note on the Generic Name Hypherpes 438

Exhibition of a specimen of Mnberiza rustica, shot in Yorkshire 827

O'Shaughnessy, a. W. E., Assistant in the Natural-History Departments of the British Museum.

An Account of the Collection of Lizards made by Mr. Buckley in Ecuador, and now in the British Museum, with Descriptions of the new Species. (Plates XXII.-XXV.) .. 227

Parker, W, N., Assistant in the Biological Laboratory of the Royal School of Mines.

Note on some Points in the Anatomy of the Caecum in the Rabbit {Lepus cuniculus) and Hare {Lepus timidus). (Plate LIII.) 624

Ramsay, Edward P., CM.Z.S.

Note on Pycnoptilus floccosus, Gould 839

Ridley, Stuart O., B.A., F.L.S.

Account of the Polyzoa collected during the Survey of H.M.S. 'Alert' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia. (Plate VI.) 44

XI

Page Account of the Ccelenterata collected during the Survey of H.M.S. 'Alert' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia. (Plate VI.) 101

Account of the Spongida collected during the Survey of H.M.S. 'Alert' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia. (Plates X., XI.) 107

Saunders, Howard, F.Z.S., F.L.S.

Exhibition of some eggs of Drotnas ardeola 2.')9

ScLATER, Philip Lutley, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary to the Society.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a skin of a Merganser {Mergus australis) 1

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in December 1880 -.. 165

On some Birds collected by Mr. E. F. im Thurn in British Guiana 212

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in January 1881. (Plate XXIX.) 258

Exhibition of, and and remarks upon, the eggs of Opis- thocnmus cristatus and Coturnix delegorgii 259

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a large Spider of the Genus Mygale 325

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in February 1881 409

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in March 1881 450

Note on the weights and measurements of the Indian Elephants in the Society's Menagerie 450

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some bird-skins brought home by the ' Challenger ' Expedition 451

Exhibition and descriptions of two new Birds from New Britain. (Plate XXXIX.) 451

xn

Page

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in April 1881. (Plate LIV.) 626

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a skin of a Chrysotis from St. Lucia, West Indies 627

Remarks upon the Insectarium lately opened in the Society's Gardens 651

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in May 1881 734

On the Generic Divisions of the Bucconidse, together with the Description of a new Species of the Genus Nonnula .... 775

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in June, July, August, September, and October 1881 818

Exhibition of a Specimen of the Glossy Ibis {Plegadis falcinellus) shot at Dogmersfield Park, Hampshire 827

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in November 1881 967

Exhibition of two Skins of a Rail from Macquarie Island 968

ScLATER, P. L., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., kc, and Hartlaub, Dr. G., F.M.Z.S.

On the Birds collected in Socotra by Prof. I. Bayley Balfour. (Plates XV.-XVII.) 165

ScLATER, Philip Lutley, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., and Nation, Prof. W., of Lima, C.M.Z.S.

On the Birds of the Vicinity of Lima, Peru. By P. L. Sclater. With Notes on their Habits, by Prof W. Nation.— Part V. (Plate XLVI.) 484

Scully, John, F.Z.S., F.L.S.

On the Mammals of Gilgit 197

Seebohm, Henry, F.Z.S., F.L.S.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, specimens of the Rusty Grackle and Pallas's Great Grey Shrike, shot near Cardiff. . 968

XIU

Page Selous, F. C.

On the South- African Rhinoceroses. (Plate LXIL). . . . 725

Field-notes on the Antelopes of Central South Africa, made during eight years spent in many different districts of the country. (Plate LXV.) 748

Sharpe, R. Bowdler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.j Senior Assistant, Zoological Department, British Museum.

Account of the Birds collected during the Survey of H.M.S. 'Alert' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia. ... ; 6

On a new Genus of Timeliidce from Madagascar, with Remarks on some other Genera. (Plate XIX.) 195

A Note on RMjpidura preissi, Cab 387

Exhibition of an example of Sabine's Snipe 409

Exhibition of a specimen of Podilymbus podiceps, said to have been killed near Weymouth 734

On some Flycatchers lately added to the Collection of the British Museum. (Plate LXVII.) 788

On the Birds of Sandakan, North-east Borneo 790

A Note on the Genera Schoenicola and Catriscus 919

Shelley, Captain G. E., F.Z.S.

List of Birds recently collected by Dr. Kirk in Eastern Africa. (Plate LII.) 561

Smith, Edgar A., F.Z.S.

Account of the Mollusca and Molluscoida collected during the Survey of H.M.S. 'Alert' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia. (Plates III.-V.) ........ 22

On a Collection of Shells from Lakes Tanganyika and Nyassa and other Localities in East Africa. (Plates XXXII. -XXXIV.) 276

On the Genus Gouldia of C. B. Adams, and on a new Species of Crassatella , 489

XIV

Page Note on Cyprcea decipiens 558

Descriptions of two new Species of Shells from Lake Tan- ganyika 558

Notes on the Genus Chilina, with a List of the known Species 840

SowERBY, G. B., Jun,

Description of eight new Species of Shells. (Plate LVI.). 635

Stolzman, J., and Taczanowski, L., C.M.Z.S.

Notice sur la Loddigesia mirabilis (Bourc.) 827

Taczanowski, L., C.M.Z.S.

Description d'une nouvelle Belette du Perou septentrional. 647

Description d'une nouvelle espece du genre Mustela du Perou nord-oriental 835

Taczanowski, L., C.M.Z.S., and Stolzmann, J.

Notice sur la Loddigesia mirabilis (Bourc.) 827

Thomas, Oldfield, F.Z.S.

Account of the Mammalia collected during the Survey of H.M.S. 'Alert' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia 3

On the Indian Species of the Genus Mus. (Plates L., LL) 521

Tristram, Rev. H. B., M.A. F.R.S., C.M.Z.S.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the skin and eggs of a Darter, and a skin of a Cormorant 826

Description of a new Fruit-pigeon of the Genus Carpo- phaga from the Louisiade Archipelago 996

Walsingham, Thomas, Lord, F.Z.S.

On some North- American Tineidse. (Plates XXXV., XXXVI.) 301

XV

Page Waterhouse, Charles Owen, Zoological Department, British Museum.

Account of the Coleoptera collected during the Survey of H.M.S. ' Alert ' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia 80

On the Coleopterous Insects belonging to the {&mi\y His- pidee collected by Mr. Buckley in Ecuador, (Plate XXX.) . 260

On the Coleopterous Insects collected by Prof. I. Bayley Balfour in the Island of Socotra. (Plate XLIII.) 469

Watkins, William.

Report on the Insect-House in the Society's Gardens. ... 819

Watson, Morrison, M.D., F.Z.S., Professor of Anatomy, The Owens College, Manchester.

Additional Observations on the Anatomy of the Spotted Hytena. (Plate XLIX.) 516

Westwood, Professor J. O., M.A., F.L.S., &c.

Descriptions of some new Exotic Species of Moths. (Plates XII., XIII.) 141

Observations on two Species of Indian Butterflies {Papilio castor and P. pollux). (Plates XLIV., XLV.) 479

ERRATA.

Page 274, line 21 from tlie bottom, for Petascelisca read Peta-

SCELIS.

276, 19 from the top, for Petascelisca read Petascelis.

582, 12 from the top, for Plate LI. read Plate LII.

602, 9 from the top, for Thalaceocoeax read Phaiacko-

COEAX.

746, 7 from the bottom, for inornatus read dorsalis.

925,^,, 22 from the bottom, /or ScBOBicuLAEiA ?vacZ ScROBi-

CUIAEIA,

Plate TI. fig. 4. The mouth of LepraJia appressa, var. vinosa is incorrectly represented; the description, p. 51, is correct.

PEOCEEDINGS

OF THE

SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS

OF THE

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OF LONDON

FOR THE YEAR

1881.

(PLATES.)

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, AJNfD SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER SQUARE.

LONDON: MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER,

PATERXOSTER ROW.

LTS,T OF TLATES.

1881.

Plate

I. II.

Page Fishes of the ' Alert ' Survey. JVeophrynichthys latus. . \ Fishes of the ' Alert ' Survey. A. Melanosfigma gelati- i 18 nosuni ; B. Gymnelis pictus ; C, D. Maynea patagonica I

Mollusca of the ' Alert ' Survey 22

Polyzoa and Corals of the ' Alert ' Survey 44

Crustacea of the ' Alert ' Survey 61

Eehinodermata of the ' Alert ' Survey 87

Sponges of the ' Alert ' Survey 107

XIII.

XIV.

XV.

XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.

XIX.

XX.

XXI.

XXII.

XXIII.

XXIV. XXV.

141

Fig. 1. Saturnia iole. Fig. 2. S. arnobia. Fig. 3.

S. sciron. Fig. 4. Castnia erycina

Fig. 1. Saturnia argiphontes. Fig. 2. S. sergestusA

Fig. 3. S. hyperhius

Rhynchocyon chrysopygus Ifi3

Fig. 1. Cisticola incana. Fig. 2. Cinnyris halfouri . . \

Passer insularis ; I 165

Rhynchostruthus socotranus )

Socotran Butterflies I75

Neomixis striatigula 195

Cylindrophis lineafus

Fig. 1. Simotes dennysi. Fig. 2. Ophites subcinctns. Fig. 3. Rhacophorus dennysi. Fig. 4. Ranamacro-

don

Fig. 1. Cercosaura (Pantodactylus) reticulata. Fig. 2. Leposoma buckleyi. Fig. 3. Cercosaura (Priono-

dactylus) manicata

Fig. 1. Ecpleopus (Euspondylus) guentheri. Fig. 2.

Goniodactylus concinnatxis. Fig. 3. Goniodactylus j>227

buckleyi

Fig. 1. Anolis boulengeri. Fig. 2. Eny alius microlepis Fig. 1. Enyalius prcEstabilis. Fig. 2. Hoplocercus

annularis _.

b

215

Plate

XXVI.

XXVII.

XXVIII.

XXIX.

XXX.

XXXI.

XXXII.;

XXXIII. XXXIV. I XXXV. XXXVI. XXXVII. XXXVIII. XXXIX. XL. XLI. XLII.

XLIII. XLIV.

XLV.

XLVI.

XLVII.

XLVIII.

XLIX.

L.

LI.

LII.

LIII.

LIV.

LV.

LVI.

LVII.

LVIII.

LIX.

LX.

LXI.

LXII. LXIII.

LXIV

IV

Page

Eny alius oshaughnessyi 246

Socotran Land Shells 251

Pithecia albinasa 258

Hispid(B from Ecuador 260

New African Rhynchota 270

Shells from East Africa 276

> New North-American Tineidae 301

> New Asiatic Lepidoptera 326

Ortygocichla rubiginosa 452

Ditypophis vivax 1

Zamenis socotrcB /

Fig. I . Pristurus insignis I . ,. ,

,, 2. Hemidactyliis hommolepis )

Coleoptera from Socotra 469

Figs. 1, 2, 3. Papilio castor. Fig. 4. P. polhx .... I

Fig. 5. P. pollux (gynandromorphous) \ 479

Papilio pollux, var. dravidarum 1

Buarremon nationi 484

Figs. 1, la. Asterias philippii j

2, 2a. A. inermis. Figs. 3, 3a. A. verrilli . . . . ( .„_ Fig. 4, Asterias spirabilis. Figs. 5, 5a, A. roUesi.oni.i

Figs. 6, 6rt, 6b. A. japonica '

Anatomy of Spotted Hyaena 516

Miis blavfordi I rgi

Indian species of Mus (details) , i

Fig. 1. Sigmodm scopifrons "i

2. Hypargus niveiguttatus J

Anatomy of Lepus 624

Oryx beisa 626

New Shells from Sumatra and Borneo 628

New Shells from various localities 635

V Fins of Elasmobranchs 656

Agama persica 671

Homceomma stradlingi 682

Mollusca of the ' Lightning ' and ' Porcupine ' Expedi- (

tions (

Horns of Rhinoceros bicornis 725

Fig. 1. Acanthodactylus bedriaga. Fig. 2. A. scutel--.

lattis I

Fig. 3. A. micropholis. Fig. 4. A. syriacus r^739

Yig.\. Acanthodactylus tristrami. Fig. 2.^. boskianus I Fig. 3. A. cantori. Fig. 4. A. vulgaris ^

Plate P»ge

LXV. Cobus vardoni 74»

LXVI. New Araneiilea 765

LXVII. Rhipidtira macgillivrayi 788

T WX 1 Socotran Land-Shells 801

LXX. I Mollusca of the ' Lightning ' and ' Porcupine ' Expedi-

LXXL 1 tions 922

LXXII. Rhynckosfruthus riebecH 953

LIST OF WOODCUTS.

1881.

Page

Left ear of Hesperomi/s coppingeri 4

Right foot of Hesperomys coppingeri 4

Wings of Castnia erycina 142

Side view of upper teeth of adult male Elephant Seal 150

Side view of lower teeth of adult male Elephant Seal 151

Head of Lanius uncinatus I(j8

Head, wing, and right foot of Rhynchostridhus socotranus 170

Liver of Koala, from above 186

Liver of Koala, from below 187

Head of Hmpiocephalus tubinaris 200

Teeth of Aroicola hlanfordi T 206

Hind foot of Arvicola blanfordi 206

Bill of AgelcBus imthurni 214

Neuration of wings of AHole bella 324

Nueration of wings of Heliodines rcesella 324

Crown of first upper molar of Gymnura rafflesii 39I

Stomach of Gymnura raffiesii 398

Stomach of Erinaceus europcsus 398

Liver of Gy?}tnui-a rafflesii 399

Liver of Erinaceus europcpus 399

Lungs of Gyinnu?-a rafflesii 4OO

Lungs of Erinaceus eurojjCBUs 400

Uterus and vagina of Gymnura rafflesii 401

Uterus and vagina of Erinaceus europ(2us 401

Skull of Erinaceus exiropceus 403

Skull of Erinaceus blanfordi 403

Radius of SpJiesrechinus granularis 43O

Sternum of Connpophaga lineata 436

Sketch of the Manatee in the Brighton Aquarium 457

Head-shields of Pachycalamus brevis 461

Foot of He^nidactylus homoeolepis 465

Head of Eremias balfouri 468

c

XXll

Page

Paramelania damoni 559

Paramelania ci-assigranulata 560

Skull of Parra jacana 643

Sternum and shoulder-girdle of Metopidms aMnucha 645

Wing-bones of Metopidius alhinucha 646

Pectoral fins and girdle of an adult of Scyllium canicula 663

Right pelvic fin and part of pelvic girdle of an adult female of

Scyllium canicula 663

Head of Scinctis conirostris 677

Head of Cafaclilcena diadema 679

Head of Hydrophis temporalis 681

Scales of Hydrophis temporalis 681

Hyoid bones and muscles of Epomophorus franqueti 686

Hyoid bones and larynx of Epomophorus franqueti 687

Head and neck of Epomophorus franqueti 689

Vertical and longitudinal section through the centre of the larynx

of Epomophorus franqueti 690

Hyoid bones and muscles of Epomophorus macrocephalus 691

Horns of Cobus vardoiii 760

Bill, wing, tail, and foot of Micromonacha lanceolata 776

Bill, wing, tail, and foot of Hapaloptila castanea 777

Bifurcating trachea of Struthio camelus 779

Bifurcating trachea of Ajiteryx mantelli 781

Bifurcating trachea of Casuarius galeatus 783

Bifurcating trachea of Rhea americana 785

Flexor muscles of right foot of Cercopithecus callitrichiis 815

Adductor muscles and flexores breves of right foot of Cercopithecus

callitrichus 816

Loddigesia mirahilis (jeune male) 833

Palate of Pharomacrus mociiuio 837

Diagram showing the temperature-curves of the male and female

(incubating) Pythons 963

Vaginal apparatus of Macropus rufus 985

Generative organs of a young Halmaturus ualahatus 988

Vaginal apparatus of Dendrolagus imtstus 989

Urogenital oi-gans of young Macropus rtftis 995

PROCEEDINGS

OP THE

SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS

OP THE

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.

January 4, 1881. Professor Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair.

Mr. Sclater exhibited a skin of the Southern Merganser {Mergus australis, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Zool. iii. p. 152, Atlas, t. 31. fig. 2), from the Auckland Islands, belonging to the collec- tion of Baron Anatole von Hiigel.

Baron A. von Hiigel had obtained two examples of this very scarce bird from the Auckland Islands when in New Zealand in 1875, and had presented one of them to the British Museum. The other was now exhibited. The acquisition of these birds had been already recorded by Baron A. von Hiigel in the Ibis for 1875 (p. 392), but had been overlooked by Mr. Sclater in his recent paper on the Anatidse (P. Z. S. 1880, p. 513).

Mr. Sclater observed that, though the colouring of the plate in the ' "Voyage au Pole Sud ' seemed rather too bright, there could be no question, he thought, of Baron A. Von Hiigel's bird being referable to the same species. Mergus australis appeared to come nearest to Mergus brasiliensis, as already indicated by Hombron and Pucheran, but differed in its brown head, the longitudinal (not transverse) mark- ings below, and longer bill. As regards the form of the tail, com- mented on by Hombron and Pucheran, there seemed to be little difference between the two species.

Prof. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., exhibiting, on behalf of Prof. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, For. Mem. Z. S., an egg of Cariama cristata, remarked :

"This rare egg was lately sent to me by M. Alphonse Milne- Edwards, that I might exhibit it to the Society. He writes to me :— L'oeuf de Cariama dont je vous ai parle a ete pondu a la Me'nagerie au Muse'um cet ete. La ponte est de 2 ceufs. Le male et la femelle convent successivement. Une eclosion a eu lieu au bout de 29 jours.

Proc, Zool. Soc— 1881. No. I. 1

ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS MADE DURING [Jan. 4,

Le jeune etait couvert de duvet gris, releve de taclies d'un brun fonce. Malheureusement il a ete mange park pere, et les observations n'ont pu etre contiuuees.'

" The egg unfortunately arrived broken. It is white, very sparsely blotched with reddish-brown, a few of the maricings taking the form of irregular hair-like lines, and measures 2'24 by r62 in. Thienemaun, in his ' Fortpflanzungsgeschiclite der gesammten Vogel,' has figured what he professes to call a specimen of this egg (tab. Ixxii. fig. 14) ; but, as is well known, the letterpress of that work is incomplete, and no one can say whether the specimen was genuine. In like manner M. des Murs, in his ' Oologie Ornitho- logique,' has described the egg of this species (p. 368) ; but, again, evidence as to the authenticity of the specimen is not forthcoming. On the receipt of this egg from M. Milne-Edwards, I at once be- thought me of an egg which had long been known to me as existing in the collection of Mr. H. F. Walter F.Z.S. ; and that gentleman has been so kind as to send it to me for exhibition to-night. This specimen is considerably larger than that laid in captivity, and also is more highly coloured. In appearance it at once calls to mind eggs of the Eallidce, while the egg from Paris can hardly be said to show such an affinity. It is to be hoped that before long greater success may attend the attempts at inducing this interesting form to breed, either in the Jardin des Plantes or the Grardens of our Society, so that some more distinct conclusion m.ay be drawn, from the evidence thus to be obtained, as to the affinities of Cariama."

The following papers were read :

. Account of tlie Zoological Collections made during the Survey of H.M.S. 'Alert' in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia. Communicated by Dr. Albert Gdnther, F.R.S.^ F.Z.S., Keeper of the Zoological Department, British Museum.

[Eeceived November 4, 1880.]

(Plates I.-XI.)

I. Mammalia, by Oldfield Tho- mas, p. 3.

II. Birds, by E. B. Siurpe, p. 6.

III. Eeptiles, Batrachians, and

Fishes, by Dr. A. Gusthee, p. 18.

IV. MoUusca and Moluscoida, by

E. A. Smith, p. 22. V. PolTzoa, by S. O. Eidley, p. 44.

TI. Crustacea, by E. J. Miees, p.61.

The collections described in the following series of papers were made by Dr. R. W. Coppinger, Staff-Surgeon of H.M.S. 'Alert,' during the cruise of that ship on the coasts of the southern ex-

VII. Coleoptera, by 0. O. Water-

HOVSE, p. 80.

VIII. Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, and Hemiptera, by A. G. But- ler, p. 82. IX. Ecliinodermata, by P. J. Bell,

p. 87. X. Coelenterata and Spongiidae, by S. O. Ridley, p. 101.

1881.] THE SURVEY OF H.M.S. 'aLERT.' 3

tremity of the American continent, and transmitted to the British Museum by command of the Lords Commissioners of the Ad- miralty.

The collections arrived in two consignments the first in September 1879, and the second in July 1880. With regard to the former, Dr. Coppinger writes : " The specimens were obtained, with few exceptions, in the western portion of the Magellan region, and in the immediate neighbourhood of the Madre-de-Dios archipelago, off the west coast of Patagonia. They will be found duly labelled as to the localities in which they were obtained ; and 'I may add that all of the specimens which are not otherwise noted were found in the living state." The second consignment consisted of specimens partly collected in the same district, partly more northwards, as far as Coquimbo. It contained also some dredgings and pelagic animals from the Atlantic, which do not come within the scope of this Report : and a series of fossils from Sandy Point and Quiriquina Island, which were delivered to the Department of Geology.

Dr. Coppinger was fully aware of tlie special interest attached to the marine fauna of these coasts. Essentially antarctic in its char- acter, it comprises a number of forms closely allied to, nay, even identical with, arctic animals, such as he himself had observed and assisted to collect during the voyage to the Polar Seas, under the command of Capt. Sir G. Nares. He directed his attention especially to the marine Invertebrata ; and consequently the majority of novelties will be found in those classes ; yet also the series of marine Vertebrates, small as it is, contains forms of no small interest which had escaped the notice of his immediate predecessors the naturahstsofH.M.SS. 'Nassau' and 'Challenger.' The best thanks of zoologists are due to the Lords of the Admiralty, from whom Dr. Coppinger has received every encouragement in making this valu- able contribution to our knowledge of the Antarctic fauna.

The various parts of the collection have been examined and de- scribed by the staff of the Zoological Department ; and for the con- venience of the studentof this fauna it seems desirable to give the results of these examinations in a connected form and systematic order.

I. :mammalia.

By Oldfield Thomas.

The Mammalia collected by Dr. Coppinger are few in number ; but they include specimens of a new and handsome species of Hesperomys, which I propose to name after the collector, and a series of skulls of some of the Magellan Seals. The species are as follows :

1. LUTRA FELINA, Mol.

Two skulls, a skeleton, and two skins from Magellan Straits and the west coast of Patagonia.

1*

4 ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS MADE DURING [Jatl. 4,

2. Ogmorhinus leptonyx (Blainv.). Stenorhynchus leptonyx, auct.

One skull from the Falkland Isles.

3. Otaria jubata, Desm.

Four skulls from the Magellan Straits. One of these skulls, apparently rather aged, has only five teeth oa each side above and below, as in the genus Zalophus ; it has, however, the concave palate and other characters of this genus. There is no appearance of there ever having been a sixth pair of teeth ; but its absence is no doubt only an individual variation.

4. Arctocephalus australis, Zimm.'

The skin of a young specimen " six weeks old," and five skulls from the Magellan Straits.

5. Hesperomys (Calomys) coppingeri, sp. n.

A skin from Tom Bay, and two specimens in spirit " caught with trap on a wooded islet about one acre in extent " in Cockle Cove, (Feb. 9, 1879).

Fur very long and soft, fully half an inch in length on the back. Ears rather short, nearly hidden in the fur. Whiskers of medium length, the shorter lower ones forming a thick shining white fringe along the upper lip. On the head and back the wool-hair is of a deep slaty blue for nine tenths of its length ; then follows a subter- minal band of yellow ; and the extreme tip is black. Mixed with

Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

Left ear of Hesperomys coppingeri.

Right foot of Hesperomys coppingeri.

this wool-hair there are a considerable number of longer black hairs, the resulting general colour being very similar to that of the common Water-vole (Arvicola amphibius, L.). The dark colour of the upperside extends on the limbs to the wrists and ankles, the feet being covered with short shining white hairs. The ears are thickly clothed with short woolly hairs similar in colour to the fur of the back. On the sides the yellow tips of the hairs gradually become lighter, and on the belly they are nearly pure white, the basal portion of the fur, liowever, from the chin to the anus, still being slate-coloured.

' Cf. J. A. Allen, N. Amer. Pinnipeds, p. 210, 1880.

18S1.] THE SURVEY OF H.M.S. 'aLERT.' 5

The tail is very long and but scantily haired ; on the upperside the scales are grey and the hairs dark reddish brown, on the lower the scales are pale yellow and the hairs white ; along the centre of the underside, however, there is a distinct narrow line of dark- brown hairs, contrasting with the white ones on either side.

The ears possess, at about one third the height of the inner margin, a small projecting lobule, which seems to be present in many species of this genus, and to be well worthy of notice, as being very constant in the species in which it is found. The foot-pads are small but distinct, and the surface of the palms and the distal half of the soles are coarsely granulated, as shown in the woodcut.

The skull is that of a typical Hesperomys, but shows only a very faint trace of the supraorbital ridges supposed to be characteristic of the subgenus Calomys, to which, however, the species undoubtedly belongs, as proved by its long tail and murine form.

The following are the dimensions of the two spirit specimens, both of which are adult males :

a. b.

inches, inches.

Length of head and body 4 3 4*2

tail 6-4 G-1

head I "4

ear 0*.t5 0-.t3

hind foot without claws .... 1'3 1"22 Distance from muzzle to ear-oridce 108

Measurements of skull of 5 :

inch.

Length 12

Breadth 0-G5

Breadth between orbits 0'16

Length of nasals 0'4

lower jaw, from condyle to tip of incisors . . 0*76

The species to which H. copping eri appears most nearly allied are H. lutescens. Gay ', and H. jihilipini, Landb.", both from Chili. The first, however, is much larger, being 5'7 inches in length, while its tail is only as long as the trunk. Moreover the skull, as figured by Gay, possesses strong supraorbital ridges, while our three specimens of II. coppiiigeri, as stated above, show but little trace of them. H. philippii, though somewhat similar in size and colour, may be readily distinguished by the extreme shortness of its tarsus (0-8 in.) ; and by the character of its fur, which is described as being short and fine, while that of H. coppingeri, as mentioned above, is particularly long and soft.

6. Hesperomys (Habrothrix) xanthorhinus, Waterh.

A skin from Monteith Bay, and a specimen in spirit from Sandy Point.

' Hist. Chile, i. p. 118 ; Atlas, pi. vii. fig. 2. 2 Wiegiii. Ai-chiv, 1858, i. p. 80. ^

6 ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS MADE DURING [Jan. 4,

7. Ctenomys magellanicus, Benn.

A spirit specimen from Pechett Harbour.

8. OCTODON DEGUS, Mol.

Two skins from Coquimbo (June 1879).

9. Myopotamus coypu, Mol.

A skin from Swallow Bay (March 21, 1880), and a skin and skeleton from Talcahuano, Concepcion (September 1879).

10. Physalus, sp.

A cervical vertebra and two tympanic bones of a species of this genus, obtained at Point Rosario, are in the collection, but are not sufficient to enable me to identify the species.

Besides these specimens, Dr. Coppiuger discovered, in caves on the cliffs, various human and mammalian remains, of which, we may hope, he himself will give an account, with full details of the circumstances under which they were found.

II. BIRDS.

By R. BowDLER Sharpe.

Although the region in which Dr. Coppinger has been working has already received considerable attention from ornithologists, so that no novelties are to be expected, yet the careful way in which Dr. Coppinger has prepared and labelled his specimens, and the localities and dates he gives, render his collections very interesting. The following extracts are taken from one of his letters, in which he alludes to the localities where his first collection was obtained. Writing from Coquimbo in June 1879, Dr. Coppinger observes : " The collection of birds will appear, at first sight, very incomplete, at least when compared with those which have been been made by ships previously employed in surveying in the Ma- gellan region. I wish, therefore, to call attention to the circum- stance that the surveying operations of the ' Alert ' have hitherto been confined to the archipelago fringing the west coast of Pata- gonia, and chiefly to the neighbourhood of the Trinidad Channel in 50° S. latitude, where the rainfall is excessive, and the Bird-fauna scanty as compared with that part