"'-*oc^^ '








Dates of Publication of the several Numbers included in this Volume.

No. 65, pp. 1-46, was published September 19, 1876.



, December 15, ,,



February 28, 1877



, June 5,



, June 20,

,, 70,


August 20,

» 71,


, September 25,



February 27, 1878





Allman, Professor, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., &c.

The Anniversary Address of the President for 1876, Recent Researches among some of the more simple Sarcode Organ- isms. (With 19 woodcuts.) 261

The Anniversary Address of the President for 1877. Recent Researches among some of the more simple Sarcode Organ- isms. (Second Notice.) (With 17 woodcuts.) 385

AxDEHSON, Dr. John, F.L.S. &c., Curator of Indian Museum, Cal- cutta. On the Habits of Hornbills, being extract of a Letter to Dr. J. Miuie lo6

Baly, Joseph, S., Esq., M.R.C.S., F.L.S., &c.

Descriptions of Genera and Species of Australian Phytophagous Beetles 468

Butler, Arthub G., F.L.S. , F.Z.S., &c.; Senior Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Museum.

Descriptions of two new Lepidopterous Insects from Malacca . . 115 On new Species of the Genus Fjiiptychia, with a tabular view

of those hitherto recorded. (Plate XII.) 116

The Butterflies of Malacca. (Abstract.) 196

Carpenter, P. Herbert, B.A., Biological Master at Eton College. On the Genus Actinometra, Miill., with a Morphological Ac- count of a new Species (^A. polymorpha) from the Philippine Islands. (Abstract.) 440

Clarke, The Rev. Robert, F.L.S., and Prof. St.-Geobge Mivart, Secretary of the Linnean Society. On the Sacral Plexus and Sacral Vertebrte of Lizards. (Abstract.) 370


CoBBOLD, T. Spencer, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S,, Correspondent of .the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia.

Trematode Parasites from the Dolphins of the Ganges, Plata- nista gangetica and Oreella brevirostris. (Plate X. and wood- cnt.) 35

OoLLETT, Robert, Esq., Conservator, Universitj^ Museum, Chris- tiania, O.M.Z.S., &c. On Myodes letmnus in Norway 327

Crotch, W. Duppa, Esq., M.A., F.L.S.

On the Migration and Habits of the Norwegian Lemming .... 27

Additional Note relative to the Norwegian Lemming 83

Further Remarks on the Lemming. (Plate XIII.) 157

Day, Francis, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.

On some Irish Gasterostei. (With a woodcut.) 110

Geographical Distribution of Indian Freshwater Fishes : Part I. The Acanthopterygii, Spiny-rayed Tp^'^'^stepn Fishes. 138

Part II. The Silnridje 338

On Amphibious and Migratory Fishes of Asia. (With a wood- cut.) 198

Doran, Alban H. G., F.R.C.S.

Morphology of the Mammalian Ossicula auditus, (Abstract.) . . 185

Etheridge, Robert, Jun., F.G.S., and Prof. Nicholson, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.L.S.

Notes on the Genus Alveolites, Lamarck^ and on some allied Forma of Palaeozoic Corals. (Plates XIX. and XX.) 358

Gunther, Dr. A., F.R.S., F.L.S., Keeper of the Zoological Depart- ment, British Museum.

Notice of two large Extinct Lizards, formerly inhabiting the Mascarene Islands. (With 6 woodcuts.) 322

Lubbock, Sir John, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.L.S., D.C.L., Vice-Chan- cellor of the University of London.

Observations on the Habits of Ants, Bees, and Wasps. Part IV. (Plate XVII. and 7 woodcuts.) 217

M'Intosh, W. C, M.D., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., &c.

Note on a new Example of the Phyllodocidse {Anaitis rosea) . . 215

M'Lachlan, R.,.Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c.

On the Nymph-stage of the Embidse, with Notes on the Habits of the Family, &c. (Plate XXI.) 373



MxERS, Edwaed J., Esq., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Musenm.

Notes upon the Oxystomatous Crustacea. (Abstract.) 107

On Actceomorpha erosa, a new Genus and Species of Crus- tacea. (Plate XIV.) 183

On Species of Crustacea living within the Venus's Flower- basket (Euplectella) and in Meyerina claviformis. (Plate XXIV.) 606

MiVART, Prof. St.-George, Secretary of the Linnean Society, and the Rev. Robert Clarke, F.L.S.

On the Sacral Plexus and Sacral Vertebrae of Lizards. (Abstract.) 370

Nicholson, Prof. H. Alleyne, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., and Robert Etheridge, Jun., F.G.S.

Notes .0.1J the. ^Genus Alveolites, Lamarck, and on some allied Fo.^-_ , , .Bozoic Corals. (Plates XIX. and XX.) 353

Peach, Charles William, Esq., A.L.S. &c.

Observations on British Polyzoa. (Plate XXIII.) 479

RoLLESTON, George, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., Liuacre Professor of Anatomy and Physiology^ Oxford.

On the Prehistoric British Sus. (Abstract.) 108

Romanes, George J., M,A., F.L.S., &c.

An Accoimt of some new Species, Varieties, and Monstrous Forms of Meduste.— II. (Plates XV. and XVI.) 190

Seeley, Harry Govier, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S., Professor of Geo- graphy in King's College, London.

On the Organization of the Ornithosauria. (Plate XL) 84

Sharp, D., Esq., M.B. &c.

Description of some new Species of Beetles (Scarabeeidas) from

Central America 129

Observations on the Respiratory Action of the Carnivorous

Water-Beetles (Dytiscidse) 161

Spiarpe, R. Bowdler, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., Senior As- sistant, Zoological Department, British Museum.

On the Geographical Distribution of the Accipitres. (Part I. The Vulturidse.) (Plates I.-IX., coloured maps.) 1



ShaepE; Pt. BowDLEE, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., &e. (continued). Contributions to the Ornithology of New Guinea :

Part. I. Notes on a small Collection of Birds from South- eastern New Guinea . , '. 79

Part II. On the Ornithological Collections formed by the late Dr. James in South-eastern New Guinea and Yule

Island 305

Part III. On a new Species of Goshawk from the Island of

Jobi. (Plate XXII.). . 457

Part IV. On the Collection of Birds brought by Mr. Octavius

C. Stone from South-eastern New Guinea 480

Description of a new Hornbill from the Island of Panay 155

Smith, Edgar A., F.Z.S., Zoological Department, British Museum. Description of Acantharachna mirahilis, a new Form of Ophiu- ridse. (Plate XVIII.) 335

Thomson, Sir C. Wyville, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c., Regius Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh, Director of the Ciyilian Scientific Staff of the ' Chal- lenger ' Exploring Expedition.

Notice of new living Crinoids belonging to the Apiocrinida3.

(With 6 woodcuts.) 47

Notice of some Peculiarities in the Mode of Propagation of cer- tain Echinoderms of the Southern Sea. (With 13 woodcuts.) 65

Vebeal, G. H., Esq., Memb. Entom. Soc.

Description of a new Genus and Species of Phoridae parasitic on Ants 258

White, Dr. F. Buchanan, F.L.S. &c.

On the Male Genital Armature in the European Rhopalocera. (Abstract.) 195









AcciPiTEES. Their Geograijliical disti'ibution, illustrating Mr. R. Bowdler Sharpe's paper bj nine coloured maps. The range of the genera and species of the Vulturidee are indicated by different colours, the genera included comprising Vultur, Sarcorham- phus, CatTiartes, Oyps, Catharistes, Fsendofft/ps, Lopliogypsi Wiynogryphus, Otogyps, and Neophron.

X. Elttkes, from Gangetic Dolphins, showing anatomyof Distoma lancea, D. campula, and D. Andersoni, to illustrate Dr. Oobbold's history and description of these Trematode parasites.

XI. Oenithosatjeia. Structural details and comparisons of Fossil and Recent Birds and Reptiles, illustrating Prof. Seeley's paper on the organization of the group in question.

XII. Butterflies. Illustrating Mr. A. Gr. Butler's paper on new species of the genus 'EuptycMa.

XIII. Chaut and Plans showing routes of the migration of the Norwegian

Lemming as specified in Mr. W. Duppa Crotch's remarks thereon.

XIV. ACT,ffiOMOEPHA EEOSA, illustrating Mr. E. J. Miers's description of this

new genus and species of Crustacean.

XV. 1 Medusa. Tinted and diagrammatic representations of new spe- & > cies and of malformations in this group, illustrating Mr. Gr. J. ^' '^•J Romanes's account of his observations.

XVII. Species op Ants, illustrating Sir J. Lubbock's paper (Part IV.) on the habits of these creatures.

XVIII. AcANTHAEACHNA MIEABILIS. Figures of, and details illustrating, Mr. E. A. Smith's new Ophiurid.

XIX. T Paljeozoic Coeals. Microscopic structural pecuHarities of the & > genus Alveolites, &c., illustrating -^^' J Etheridge's paper on the group.

> genus Alveolites, &c., illustrating Prof. H. A. Nicholson and Mr. R. ■J Et


Plate XXI. OllQ-OTOMA MiCHAELi. Lai'va, nymph, and perfect insect, in illus- tration of Mr. R. M'Lachlan's paper on the Emhidce.

XXII. ASTTJE Meteeianus. Figure accompanying Mr. R. B. Sharpe's de- scription of this Goshawk.

XXIII. British Poltzoa. Illustrating Mr. C. W. Peach's observations and descriptions of new species of this group.

XXIY. Cbustaceans in Sponges. Figures in illustration of Mr. E. J. Miers's paper on species living within Euplectella and Meyerma.


Page 310, Hue 9 from bottom, p has dropped out from E. cyanocephala

(Lath.). ,, 327, top line heading table (Dr. Giinther's paper on extinct Mascarene

Lizards), G.NewtoniisiXid G'. ■yerw* should be transposed

and correspond in position to those in table p. 326. 348, lines 11, 12, & 13, O, O, O should be C, C, C, in agreement with

the contraction for genus CaUic7irous.




On the G-eographical Distribution of tlie Aecipitres. By E. BowDLER Sharpe, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.

[Read February 3, 1876.]

(Plates I.-IX.)

Part I. The VULTURID^.

The following papers will form a supplement to the British- Museum ' Catalogue of Birds.' In the latter volume a classifica- tion of the Aecipitres is unfolded ; and I now propose to treat of the geographical distribution of the birds described in the first volume of that work ; for until a classification has been deter- mined upon, my experience tells me that it is impossible to treat of the distribution of the feathered tribes over the earth's surface. I am at the same time aware that several writers have called in question my arrangement of the birds of prey, notably that con- scientious and indefatigable naturalist Mr. Eobert Eidgway ; but I have as yet found no reason to modify my conclusions in any serious degree ; and I therefore feel pleased to have an opportu- nity of expounding my system of classification of the Accipitrt^s, feeling, as I do, that the consideration of their geographical distri- bution will confirm the views expressed in the work above alluded to.

It is here necessary only to state that I divide the birds of prey into three distinct groups, which I consider to be of the rank of suborders. These are Hawks, Ospreys, and Owls. The second and the last have a remarkable osteological character in common in the long tibia, which is more than double the length of the tarsus ; and they have at the same time the outer toe reversible. These



points seem to me to be of the first importance ; and as further characters can be found for tbe separation of the Owls from the other birds of prey, it seems to me natural to consider tlie Ospreys as Accipitres with an owl-like structure and the habits of Eishing Eagles ; and thus they would naturally occupy an intermediate position between the Owls and the great mass of the diurnal birds of prey.

The first of my suborders, the Ealcones, is much the largest of the three, and may be divided into two primary groups Vultures (Vulturidae) and Hawks (Falconidae). The former have never any trite feathers on the crown of the head, this part being either quite bare or covered with silky down. In habits, the American Vul- tures so closely resemble those of the Old "World, that I cannot bring myself to consider them anything but Vultures, though ad- mitting that they are very aberrant in their structure. I there- fore still keep them in the family Vulturidse, and divide these birds into two subfamilies, one of them (Vulturinse) containing the Old-world vultures, and the other (Sarcorhamphinse) containing the American species. It is with the geographical range of these birds that we now propose to deal.


V. MONACHUS, L. ; Sliarpe, Cat. B. i. p. 3.

For the distribution of the Cinereous Vulture see Dresser's 'Birds of Europe ' (pt. xiii.); but observe that the bird does not visit West Africa as there stated. The vulture mentioned by Eraser under the name of V. monachus is the small form of African Hooded Vulture, Neophron monachus (Temminck), peculiar to the Ethiopian region, into the north-eastern portion of which alone the present species ranges.

Pal^arctic Region.

France. Occurs accidentally in Provence, Languedoc, and Dauphine {DeglandSf Gerbe); inhabits the Spanish Pyrenees as well as the French, where it arrives in June, departing in October. It is not, however, un- common on a fine winter day to see them appear in the neighbourhood of Bagneres-de-Bigorre, which fact seems to indicate that at least some indi- viduals winter, if not in the French, at any rate in the Spanish Pyrenees. The localities which it seems to prefer in the western chain of these moun- tains are, according to M. Darracq, Mounts Orsamendi, Mousson, Rei-

boura. La Rhum, and especially the Aldules A large band of them

passed near Angers in October 1839, computed to number 100 individuals.


of which three were secured ; and a still larger band was said to have passed two years previously. Both came from the north and journeyed towards the Pyrenees (Jaubert et Barthelemy'Lapommeraye).

Spain. By no means rare throughout Andalucia (Saunders); Castilles (Lilford); near Marbella and Cordova (Lilford); on the Spanish side of the Straits frequently to be seen in winter and early spring, though not nearl}' so common as the Griffon Vulture ; it is more common near Seville than Gibraltar; some breed in Andalucia. Found by Lord Lilford nesting near Madrid (cf. Irby's B. Gibr. p. 28),

Portugal. Portugal {Bocage); Benavente ( Welwitsch) ; Alemtejo {Mira) ; CoUares [Menezes). Cf. Souza, Cat. Accipitr. Lisb. Mas. p. 30.

Balearic Tsles. Resident in Mallorca (Saunders).

Switzerland and Savoy. Very rare in both these countries (Bailly).

Italy. Accidental in the Apennines ; two specimens killed near Sai-ona, according to Durazzo ; two killed in May 1863, near Ripatransone, in the province of Ascoli-Piceno (Salvadori).

Sardinia. Commonest Vulture in the island (Brooke).

Austrian Empire. Rarer than the Griffon, and occurs but seldom in the northern and western portions, Kloubouker district (Briinner-Kreis); Steiu- burg, in Carinthia ; Southern Styria, accidental, once near Pettau ; not rare in Siebenbiirgen ; ' doubtful whether it breeds in the High Tatra, Galicia ; Hungary, near Ofen, common in the south (Von Tschudi); Banat (Zelebor, Mus. Wien). Cf. Pelzeln, Geier und Falk. p. 126.

Bohemia. Very rare (Fritsch, J.f. O. 1871, p. 175). Comes from the east ; K6nig-gi-'atz ; the Georgsberg near Laudnic ; near Leitomitschl (Fritsch).

Germany. Once in Schleswig, once in Ober Lausitz, once in E. Prussia (Borggreve), Frankstadt (M'dhren) in the end of May 1873 -, Hochwald, not far from Frankstadt ; about the same time near Bielitz, Silesia, on tne authority of Prof. Tolsky (Von Tschusi, J.f. O. 1874, p. 341).

Kurland. Shot by Forester Tamma (Goebel,J.f. O. 1873, p. 8).

Poland. Kielce and Rakolupy in the Government of Lublin ; near Warsaw; near Lomze (Taczanoivsld).

Turkey. By no means a common species in Central Bulgaria ; breeds in the thickly wooded hills that border on the Pravidy Valley (Farman) ; plentiful on the southern Danube (Dresser) ; common in Macedonia and Bulgaria, numerous in February (Elwes ^ Buckley) ; very common on the Bosphorus during migration (Alteon Sf Vian).

Greece. Breeds in Attica from Corinth to Livadia, resident also in winter {Lindermayer) ; breeds in the Cyclades, leaving in winter (Erhardt) ; Ionian Islands (Lilford).

Southern Russia. Steppes of Bessarabia (Nordmann) ; Crimea [?] (Nord- mann) ; Tiflis (Radde). Sabanaeff did not meet with it in the southern Ural.

Asia Minor. Xanthns (Fellows); " only of very rare occurrence near


4 Mil. E. B. SnARPE ON THE

Smyrna in summer ; but I think I have seen it with other Vultures near Kaias {Kriiper, J.f. 0. 1869. p. 23).

Cyprus. (Mus. BeroL).

Palestine. By no means common, but a few scattered over the country (Tristram).

Egypt. Throughout the country, but nowhere abundant {Shelley). Von Heuglin only once saw it, near Benisouef, and considers it to be a very rare straggler.

Algeria. Not common, only seen singly or in pairs (Loche); in the mountainous parts, more especially in the neighbourhood of Constantine {Taczanowski, J.f. 0. 1870, p. 36).

Morocco. Once near Tangier (Favier) ; a specimen, perhaps the identi- cal one obtained by Favier, is in the Norwich ]Vluseum from Tangier (Irby B. Gibr. p. 28).

Northern Persia {Blanford).

Turkestan. All over the country, breeding. Found during the winter season in the north-western and south-western divisions of the country {Severtzoff). Cf. Dresser, Ibis, 1875, p. 98.

India. By no means rare throughout the north-west provinces, becoming more common in the country north-west of Delhi in the cold weather {Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 234). Throughout the Punjaub, N.W. Provinces, Oudh, and Rajpootana, north-west of the Avavalli Hills in the cold weather, being most abundant in the far north-west, and becoming less and less common as you proceed south and west ; a few specimens met with in that portion of the Central Provinces known as the Sagar and Nerbuddah terri- tories, and in the northern or Shikarpoor collectorate of Sindh {Hume) ; once about twenty miles north of Ahmedabad {Butler) ; not yet received or heard of from Jodhpoor, Cutch, Kattiawar, or Sindh ; and though it may doubtless occur within this vast tract, it can only be as a rare strag- gler {Hume); met within the cold weather near the Sambhur lake {Adam, S. F. 1873, p. 367); once at Ajmere, and further north in Rajpootana it is not uncommon (Hwme); Nepal (Ho%sora); Darj eehng (Jerrfow) ; Bho- tan {Hume) ; Assam {Jenkins, Mus. Calc). Mongolia {David).

China, Peking {David) ; Ningpo {Swinhoe, Mus. Brit.) ; mouth of the Shanghai river and Chusan archipelago {Swinhoe),

2. G-TPS FULVUS. (Map 11.)

G. FULvus (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat. i. p. 5.

The Grriffon Yulture is here considered as one species, for after Mr. Grurney's observations (Ibis, 1875, pp. 88, 89) I do not think tbat my proposed separation of the Spanish bird as a distinct race can be upheld. In fact the way in which the Griffons wander would render it difficult to draw the exact range of one of the


O.fidvus group ; and therefore I relinquish the name G. hispanio- lensis ; but at the same time the Spanish birds now alive in the Zoological Gardens show no inclination to paler colouring as they get older, but have the rufous coloration which induced me first to separate them. I further stated my belief that the Algerian Griffon (and probal)ly the bird from North-east Africa also) would prove to be the same as Q. Mspaniolensis from Southern Spain. As to their habits of wandering, Canon Tristram says that during the Crimean war the Arabs believed that " the Vultures from all ISTorth-east Africa were gathered together to feed on Russian horses in the Crimea, and declare that very few ^Nissr ' were to be seen in their accustomed haunts." Nor is the Spanish Vulture free from these erratic habits ; for Mr. Howard Saunders, writing of his trip to Southern Spain in 1868, says, " it had been a bad year for Vultures generally (they were away in Morocco feeding on Moors and E-ii£tes)." I depended a great deal on the restricted habitat of G. Mspaniolensis as a special feature ; but if the bird wanders as stated above, then it is worth- less ; and moreover Mr. Gurney's researches (I. c.) tend to prove that the value of the Spanish bird as a race is very doubtful. Still the question is undoubtedly not yet settled, and a larger series will be necessary to determine the matter. I may re- mark, en passant, with regard to Mr. Gurney's statement that in the event of G. Mspaniolensis proving distinct it must be called G. occidenfalis, Bp., that this is certainly not so ; for Bonaparte's name is taken from Schlegel's Vultur fulvus occidentalis, the types of which exist at Leiden, and are inseparable from the East-Euro- pean bird. Pyrenean specimens may be the same as Sardinian ; but my G. Mspaniolensis, be it remembered, is the bird from Southern Spain.

Pal^arctic Region.

Great Britain. Once, on the rocks near Cork Harbour. (For particulars, see Newton's edition of Yarrell's ' British Birds.')

France. Twice, in the department of the Seine Inferieure, in a plain at Saint Remain de Colbose, and near Bolbec (Lemetteil). Of frequent oc- currence in Provence, and occasionally in Languedoc, Dauphine, and the north of France ; one killed near Armenbieres in July 1828, and a young bird killed near Abbeville (Baillon); mountains of Provence, I'Ardeche, the Pyrenees, and especially the Cevennes ; only a very accidental visitor in Savoy in autumn and spring. The localities where it has been met with are the mountains adjacent to Montiers, those of the Bauges, especially


those which feed large flocks of kids or sheep, such as the mountains of Treloz, Orgeval, Rosannaz, and those of Faucigny, whence in 1846 M. Louis Coppier received a young male captured at Chamounix {Bailly) ; a regular migrant in the south of France {Jauhert et Barthelemy-Lapom- meraye) .

Lorraine. Very rare (Godron); killed once near Remilly in 1842 (Hollandre).

Spain. Common in Southern Spaid (Saunders) ; very plentiful near Gibraltar, nesting in colonies (Irby) ; Guadalquivir river {Lilford) ; Sierra de la Palraiterra near Marbella [Lilford).

Portugal. Said to be common in the southern districts, and seen on several occasions in the plains of Alemtejo (Smith) ; common in the last- named locality (Socage).

Italy. Resident in the Alps of Nice and in Sicily, and of accidental oc- currence all over Italy (Salvadori).

Sardinia. By no means uncommon; resident and breeding (A. B Brooke).

Austria. Often plentiful in Southern Hungary, Dalmatia, and Servia (Fritsch) ', ZwoMaxing (Brezenkeim) ; breeding in the Banat (ZeZeftor); cf. Pelz. Sitz. z.-b. G. Wien, 1862, p. 129 ; a male procured at Neutitschein (Mahren) in October 1873 (Von Tschusi).

Bohemia. Comes from the eastward, particularly from Galicia and Hun- gary (Fritsch. J.f. O. 1871, p. 175).

Germany. Of accidental occurrence nearly all over Germany ; Ober- Lausitz ; Oldenburg, near Mlinster ; Dantzig, &c. (Borggreve).

Poland. Rarer than Vultur monachus; near Saraose; near "Warsaw (Taczanowski).

Russia. Courlandj killed in the Mitau district (Ooebel). According to Mr. Dresser, it was found by Sabauaeff " in the Kaslinsky Ural, where it breeds; and he further states that it ranges as high as 59° N. lat., having been obtained in the Pavdinskaia Dacha. He records the capture of one within sixty miles of Moscow in 1841, and says that sportsmen have assui-ed him that they have seen this species in the district of Jaroslaf, which he thinks may have been the case. He also speaks of it as an annual migrant in the Government of Voronege." Uman, ob- served on the 26th of April, 1871 (Goebel,J.f. O. 1873, p. 131); near Tiflis (Radde) ; more or less common on all the shores of the Black Sea, more abundant in Bessarabia, only in small numbers on the mountains which border the south coast of the Crimea (Nordmann) ; abundant near Sevastopol in 1854 (G. C. Taylor).

Turkey. One of the commonest birds throughout Central Bulgaria; particularly partial to the Pravidy Valley (Farman); common in Mace- donia and Bulgaria (Elwes 4" Buckley); common during migration, pass- ing the simimev in the interior, some few remaining (Alison).


Greece. Jie&ident {Lindermayer); abundant inEpirus(Li//brrf) ; Athens {Merlin) ; numerous near Missolonghi ; breeds at Mount Varassoro and in the Klissouras of Aracj'nthus (Hwc^/ei'^ore).

Crete (J. H. Gurney).

Syria. Beyrout {Lauretta).

Palestine. Common all over the country ; plentiful in the hill-country of Judjea, and observed breeding in some ravines near the Dead Sea {Tristram).

Egypt. Plentifully distributed throughout Egypt and Nubia {Shelley).

Tunis. Not noticed in this regency {Salvin) ; occurs here and in Fez {Von Heuglin).

Algeria. Throughout the country (Loche); first seen at Souk Harras ; several pairs also seen at Djebel Dekma and at " Khifan, Msakta ;" very plentiful at Kef Laks and in the neighbourhood {Salvin) ; Laghouat (J. H. Gurney, jun.); Sahara {Tristram).

Morocco. Common at Tetran {Drake) ; occurs commonly in Tangier, both as a resident and on passage {Favier). " I did not see many Griffons in Morocco j but there were a few near Jebel Moosa in April " {Irby).

Central Africa {Denham, Mus. Brit.).

Ethiopian Region.

N.E. Africa. Resident along the coast of the Red Sea to 16° N. lat. ; the whole of Egypt and Nubia ; Abyssinia to 12,000 feet; singly in Kor- dofan, and on the Lower Blue and White Niles {Von Heuglin) ; Senafe in April ; common in the Abyssinian highlands {Jesse); common in Samhar and on the Barka {Antinori). A species called the "Ai'med Vulture " is mentioned by Browne in his 'African Travels,' and is said to be extremely frequent in the country of Darfur, where it flies about in thousands (cf. * Discoveries in Africa,' p. 441, 1849). This is perhaps the Griffon.

Arabia. Near Akabah, Peninsula of Sinai {Wyatt).

Persia. Plentiful in the mountainous parts and at Demavend (De Filippi)^ Southern Persia (Blanford).

Turkestan (Severtzoff). Dr. Severtzoff, one of the keenest ornitholo- gical observers 1 have ever met, seems to consider the Turkestan Griffon distinct ; for he proposed the name of G. rutilans for it at one time {cf. J. f. O. 1870, p. 382 &c.).

Indian Region.

India. Mr. Hume has named the Griffon of India Gyps fulveseens, on account of its persistent bay colour; and I must say that the specimens in the Museum bear evidence of its distinctness. Taking into considera- tion the above observations of Dr. Severtzoff, the Indian Griffon (which, like G. himalayensis and Otogyps calvus, doubtless finds its way to Tur- kestan) is most probably distinct. Mr. Hume says, " I have found this bird very common throughout the Punjaub, Northern Rajpootana, and the north-western provinces, north and west of Etawah ; and Colonel Tytler

8 Mil. B. B. SnAEPE ON TKE

lias a young bird from Oraiee." As far as I can yet j«tlge, it is essentially the vulture of the desert. In richly cultivated tracts, far from any sandy wastes, it is rare ; but in the lower portions of the North-western Pro- vinces and the Punjaub i is common, and in and on the borders of Bha- wulpoor, Bikaneer, Jodhpoor, and Northern Jaipoor it abounds." Cap- tain C. Marshall has found it breeding near Lahore. In Sindh, writes Mr. Hume, " this was the only species of Vulture that I actually shot and identified; but other species doubtless occur. Vultures, however, are very rare in Sindh, compared with what they are in Upper India." He then gives additional evidence as to the distinctness of G. fulvescens (of. Str, F. 1873, pp. 148-150). Common near the Sambhur lake (Adam). Captain Butler, in his paper " On the Birds of Mount Aboo and Northern Guzerat," includes the true Gyps fulvus as " common on the plains," and he says that G. fulvescens of Hume is not very common. Mr. Hume ob- serves that the latter species has been shot by himself at Deesa and Jodh- ])oor, and he has received it from Cutch, Kattiawar, and Sindh. With re- gard to Captain Butler's observation, it is worthy of note that he, a good field-naturalist, is acquainted with two species of Griffon on the plains of North-western India ; and this is an additional argument in favour of the recognition of G. fulvescens. Kumaon {Sir a chey). Nepalese examples col- lected by Mr. Hodgson are in the British Museum. It is said to have been procured by Griffith in Assam ; but Mr. Blyth suggests that, as Mr. Griffith also collected in Afghanistan, the Griffon may have come from the latter place, owing to some misapprehension as to the locality. Upper Pegu. Perhaps occurs here. Cf. Hume, Str. F. 1875, p. 18.

8. Grps HiMALATENSis. (Map III.)

G. HiMALAYENSis, Hume ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 8.

Hab. Himalaya Mountains from Cabool to Bhootan; breeds in the Himalayas in January, February, and March (Hume). Nepal (Hodgson, Mus. Brit.). " Not common between Gangaotri and Mussoorie ; occasion- ally seen' seated on its nest above the road, but so high up that it was almost out of rifle-shot, and at the opposite side of the narrow glen in which the river there runs. But for the white mark on the rock caused

by the dung of the bird, I should not have noticed it All the

nests of this bird which I saw were inaccessible ; and whether they con- tained young or not I could not tell. None of them occurred below Bara- hath; eyry the above referred to was not far from Danguli (Brooks); Major Lloyd noticed a Griffon about the cliffs and valleys of the Geerwar (Kattiawar) which he thinks may be this species (Ibis, 18/3, p. 402). Turkestan ; resident in the north-eastern district " comprising Semiratchje, Issikkul, the Upper Narin, Acksay, Kopal, andVernoe" (Severtzoff, cf. Dresser, Ibis, 1875, p. 97). Its vertical range in Turkestan is "A winter visitant in district 3, a resident in district 4, where it breeds, and probably nests in districts 3, 4, and 6 " (Severtzoff, I. c). (For the explanation of the vertical range, vide Dresser, I. c.)


4. GrTPS KOLBi. (Map III.)

G. KOLBI {Baud.); Sharpe, Cat. B. i, p. 8, pi. 1.

Hab. South Africa ; pretty generally distributed throughout the Cape colony, still lingering even near Capetown {Layard); Gauritz river (Atmore). Caffraria (Brehm). Port Elizabeth and East London (Richard). Algoa Bay {Mus. Wien). Common in Natal (Ayres). Ex- tremely common from Natal up to the Matabili country (T. E. Bvckley). Breeding in the Transvaal Republic (Ayres). Very numerous during a jom-ney from Potschefstroom to the river Limpopo (Ayres). In all pro- bability the species of Griflfbn met with in the^ Zambesi delta by Dr. Kirk (Ibis, 1864, p. 314). Sparingly found in Damara Land, chiefly observed in the vicinity of the sea above Oosop rocks in the lower course of the Swakop river. Mr, Audersson does not seem to have sent home any skins of this Vulture, with which, however, he was doubtless thoroughly well ac- quainted. Mr. Chapman states that it is found neai-ly all over South Africa, but is more common to the south and east than in either Damara or Great Namaqua Land.

N.B. It has not yet been met with by Anchieta in Mossa- rnedes or Benguela, and seems to be much rarer on the w^estern side of the continent. It was probably at one time more frequent in the western parts of the Cape colony, as Sir Andrew Smith, writing in 1829, speaks of it as occurring in great abundance throughout tJie lohole of South Africa (S. Afr. Q. Journ. i. p. 11).

There is no valid evidence of its occurrence out of the South- African subregion ; and its reputed capture in North-east Africa requires confirmation, while Von Pelzeln (Sitz. z.-b. Gr. Wien, 1862, p. 130) very properly doubts Erhardt's statement of its oc- currence in the Cyclades (Naumannia, 1858, p. 16).


G. RUEPPELLi, Brehm ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 9.

Hab. N.E. Africa. Takar and Southern Nubia 5 Kordofan, Senaar ; Abyssinia; Djak on the White Nile, less abundant on this river; comes to the sea-coast in Samhar, and occurs on the high mountains of Semien and in the Galla countries up to 10,000 feet {Von Heuglin). AngoUala, Shoa, October 1842 (Harris, Mus. Brit.). Autrub, on the Blue Nile (An- tinori). The great majority of the Vultures met with in the Abyssinian Highlands were probably of this species, which was by no means confined to the high tableland ; abundant in the Anseba valley at from 4000 to 4500 feet; Rairo, north of the Lebka valley, at 3000 feet (Blanford). South Africa, rare ; seldom found to the south of the Orange river (J. Verreaux). Port Natal (J. Verreaux, Mus. Lisb.); rare in this part of the colony Ayres).


S.W. Africa. Ondonga, Ovampo Land, Nov. 18G6.

I cannot help thinking that this is the identical specimen men- tioned by Professor Schlegel (Eevue, Accipitr. p. 140) as Vultur fulvus Jcolhei. When I gave up collecting large African birds in order to restrict myself to Passeres and Picariae, most of the former passed into the hands of Mr. Prank, by whom they were oifered to the Leiden Museum. I may state therefore that the bird in question was examined botb by Mr. Gurney and myself, and identified as G. riceppelli, which, as I have observed in my ' Catalogue,' wlien adult, is unmistakable, but when young more nearly resembles the other Griffons.

G. Gyps tndictts. (Map IV.)

G. iNDicus {Scop.y, Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 10.

Hab. All over India, more rare towards the south, and then chiefly near mountains; not rare on the Neilgherries, where it breeds (Jerdon). Kat- tiawar {Lloyd) ; breeds at the Taragurh Hill near Ajmere, and in the Gai- mookh clitFs on Mount Aboo (Hume) ; very common near the Sambhur Lake (Adam) ; common in Oudh and Kumaon {Irby) ; Nepal {Hodgson); Deccan (Sykes) ; probably occurs in the Wardha valley (Blanford) ; Assensole, Chota Nagpur district (Brooks) ; breeds near Calcutta (Blyth); very abundant in Burmah (Jerdon); Arakan (Blyth) ; Zwagaben Moun- tains (Beavan); nowhere in great numbers in Upper Pegu, but is not un- common near villages (Oates); Siam (ScJiomburgk); an adult and a nest- ling procured by Mouhot in Siam, 200 miles N.E. of Bangkok, in the Nor- wich Museum (Gurney, Cat. Rapt. B. Norw. Mus. p. 74) ; Malayan penin- sula : " I have seen two specimens of this Vulture in a Malacca collection. No doubt a Vulture of any kind is there rare, or it would not have been deemed worthy of preservation ; according to Sir Stan^ford Raffles, Vul- tures are rare on the west coast of Sumatra, but are occasionally seen on the Malayan peninsula and at Penang " (Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 277; Blyth, B. Burma, p. 64).

Mr. Hume believes that two distinct birds are generally com- prised under the name of G. indicus, and he has named one of them O. pallescens. Captain Butler says that the Long-billed Brown Vulture is very common near Mount Aboo and in Northern Guzerat ; and Mr. Hume states that the bird from these parts is the pale cliff-breeding O. pallescens, and not the so-called G. in- dicus of Scopoli, " so common in the eastern portions of our empire." He states that he has received it from Jodhpoor, Cutch, and Kattiawar, but not Scindh as yet.



P. BENGALENSis (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat, B. i. p. 11.

Hab. The commonest Vulture in India ; in immense numbers ail over the country, extending into Assam and Burmah (Jerdon). Caudahar (Hufton); commonest Vulture in Kattiawar (Lloyd); very plentiful both on the hills and in the plains near Mount Aboo and Northern Guzerat (Butler); common all over Rajpootana, the North-west Provinces, and the major portion of the Punjaub (^wwie); very common near the Sambhur Lake ; " a great quantity of camels and bullocks which die near here attract these birds in great numbers " (Adam) ; common throughout the year in Oudh and Kumaon (Irby); Nepal (Hodgson); Ohota Nagpur (Ball); Wardha valley near Chanda (jBZa?i/orc?j; Deccan. (SyJces); Travan- core (Elwes); Burmah, often seen in great numbers, even in the suburbs of large towns (Mason). " I noticed a few about Akyab only. It abounds as much in Siam as in Bengal " (Blyth, B. Burma, p. 65). A specimen received from Thayetmyo; occurs as far south, at any rate, as Tavoy (Hume) ; Pabyouk, Tenasserim ; occasionally seen (Davison) ; Province Wellesley (Cantor).


P. AFRICANUS (Salvad.); Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 12.

Hab. From the Soudan northwards to Chartoom ; "Western Abyssinia ; Southern Kordofan and the districts of the White Nile and Gazelle River (Von Heuglin, Antinori) ; Senaar (Kotscliy, Mus. Wien, cf. Pelz. Sitz. z.-b. G. Wien, 1862, p. 130), Nubia (Baron Von Mueller, Mus. Stuttg., cf. Calwer, Cat. p. 2). Senegal, Dakar (Marche, of. Bouvier, Cat. p. 5, Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 13). S.W. Africa; Humbe on the Cunene river (Anchieta, cf. Bocage, Jorn. Lisb. 1874, p. 47).


L. OCCIPITALIS (Burch.); Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 15.

Hab. N.E. Africa. It affects only the wooded districts of the equato- torial north-east, the Abyssinian coast-land, the districts of Bogos and Maria, Central Abyssinia, Senaar, Southern Kordofan, and the countries about the White Nile and Gazelle River westwards as far as Kosanga. It wanders more rarely into the southernmost parts of Nubia and Takah and the Bisharim steppes ; it is not rare near Massowa ; not observed in Somali Land (Heuglin). Senaar (Kotschy, Mus. Wien). Nubia (Clot-Bey, Mus. Lugd.). Mansura, Barka river, Anseba river, Keren, Bogos Land (Antinori 8f Beccari). W. Africa. Senegal (Mus. Lugd.). Bissao (Beaudouin, Calheiros). Fernand Vaz (Marche). S. Africa. Not found within the limits of the Cape colony (Layard); rarest of the Vul- tures in Natal (Ay res); plentiful near Kuruman (Chapman); breeds in


the Transvaal (Ayres) ; originally obtained in the Bechuana country by Burchell ; not a very common species from Natal to the Matabili country (T. E. Buckley); near the Seko-kaama Hill, the Koppes, S.W. of Lake Ngami, March 2, 1862 {Baines) : " I do not remember to have met with this fine Vulture in Damara Land, but have observed it, though only at a distance on a few occasions, in Great Namaqua Land " (Andersson).

10. Otogtps aueiculakis. (Map YII.)

O. AURicuLARis (Baud.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 13.

Hab. S, Africa; pretty generally distributed in South Africa (Lay ar(^) ; breeding near Beaufort in August (Jackson); Natal (Ayres); Transvaal (Ayres); Modder river, near Bloemfontein, Orange Free State (Exton); the commonest Vulture in Damara and Great Namaqua Lands, and also found in all the parts bordering those countries (Andersson) ; probably in the Zambesi (Kirk).

N.E. Africa. Not found in Northern Egypt, but in the middle and southern provinces tolerably plentiful ; common in Nubia, Northern Kor- dofan and Senaar ; in Takah and the whole of Abyssinia up to 12,000 feet in the latter country in the district of the middle and upper White Nile apparently entirely absent on the Red-Sea coast seemingly only of acci- dental occurrence (Heuglin); met with on the highlands of Abyssinia at con- siderable elevations, and occasionally seen in the Anseba valley at lower levels (Blanford) ; Shoa (Harris, Mus, Brit.) ; Khartoum (Vierthaler) ; Senaar (Reitz, Mus. Wien).

W. Africa. Cape-Verd peninsula, Senegal (Marche). Cf. Bouvier, Cat. p. 2.

JV. Africa. Sahara; constant resident, though in limited numbers (Tw- tram) ; breeds to the S.W. of Biskra, remains all the year round in the district between the Mzab country and the oasis of Wai-egha, lat. 32° N. (Tristram) ; probably to be found in the southern part of Morocco (Irby).

Palestine. Mount Lebanon (Mus. Marseilles).

Europe. Once near Aries, S. France (Jaubert Sf Barthelemy-Lapomme- raye). The same gentlemen state that it has once nested in Spain. The Norwich Museum has a specimen said to have been killed in Greece (cf. Gurney, Cat. Rapt. B. p. 58).

N.B. It will be seen that I have treated all the eared Vultures of Africa as being of one species, the only specific difference being the greater amount of wattled skin on the sides of the bare neck in South-African specimens. Dr. Exton has some remarks on this subject (Cape Monthly Mag. 1875, p. 259), and considers that the preparation of the skin has much to do with the appear- aJice of the birds when preserved.


11. Otogtps CALYrs. (Map VII.)

O. CALVUS (Scop.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 14.

Hab. Found commonly throughout India, extending into Burma, but by no means abuudant in individuals (Jerdon); not uncommon in Kattia- war {Lloyd); found in the hills and plains near Mount Aboo and in north- ern Guzerat (Butler); Jodhpoor, Cutch, Kattiawar, Sambhur, and Raj- pootana generally, but not as yet from Sindh (Hume) ; common near the Sambhur Lake ; " in the month of March I saw this bird sitting on its nest, which was in the face of a rock in the hills near the town of Nawa " (Adam, S. F. 1873, p. 367) j Etawah, breeding at Ajmere (Hume); be- tween Simla and Mussoorie (Tytler, Ibis, 1871, p. 194); "seen occasion- ally between Mussoorie and Gangaotri, and far into the hills, where one would not expect to see a plains-loving Vulture. I saw one or two soar- ing high above Derali" (Brooks, S. F. 1875, p. 228) ; frequently noticed at Nynee Tal and Almora (Brooks); found in Oudh and Kumaon throughout the year, breeding in^the cold season (Irby); Nepal (Hodgson); from the neighbourhood of Calcutta {Mus. Ind.) ; not uncommon in Chota Nagpur, but more than a pair rarely observed at a time (Ball, S. F. 1874, p. 376) ; Wardha valley (Blanford, J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 270); Deccan (Sykes) ; breeding near Gotekindee, Sattara district (Davidson, S. F. 1874, p. 336); Travancore (Elwes) ; Kliasia and Garo hills, six or eight specimens ob- served at Chatak (Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 18/0, p. 265); not a com- mon species in Burma (Blyth, B. Burma, p. 64); Upper Pegu (Oates, Feilden) ; Siam (Schomburgk), Turkestan, an occasional summer visitant to district III. (" the north-western district comprising Kai-atau, the west- ern Thianshan mountains, the upper portions of the rivers Aris, Kedess, Chirchick, and their tributaries, the lower Syr-Daria, from the source of the Aris to Lake Aral and the delta of the Syr-Daria"): Severtzoff; cf. Dresser, Ibis, 1875, p. 97. The " vertical range " is given in the same paper as follows : " an occasional straggler during summer in district II. (the cultivated districts, grassy steppes, and gardens to 3000 or 4000 feet altitude)."

12. Neophson peecnopteefs. (Map VIII.)

N. PERCNOPTERUS (L.); Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p.